Will Power – Discipline can be trained

Will power, or you can also call it discipline, is the ability to control yourself. The interesting thing about will power is that it behaves like a muscle: it needs time to recover after you strained it, but you can train it to get more strength.

On the one hand side you need will power to overcome inner temptation and force yourself not to do things. Such things, which are bad for you, but you are so used to.

And on the other side, you need will power to force yourself to do things, which you know would be good for you.

For instance, you need will power to overcome the temptation to not eat sweets when you are on a diet. And you also need it to push yourself out of the couch and to the gym to get in shape.

It seems that people, who achieve a lot in life have a very high will power, otherwise they would not be able to achieve those things. For instance, athletes train every day, while for “normal” people it is hard to even go to the gym once or twice a week.

Will power is limited

Science found out in multiple experiments, that will power of humans is limited. Similar to muscle power, you have only a limited amount of will power per day.

For example you can lift weights only a certain amount of times until your muscles get tired. Then your muscles need some rest to recover, before you can use them again.

Similarly, you can stretch your will power only to a certain degree, after that you need some time to recover to gain back your strength.

I was recently reading the book “The power of habit” by Charles Duhigg. I highly recommend the book, if you want to know more about habits from a scientific point of view.

Anyway, in the book he mentions an experiment, which has been conducted in the 90s.

The experiment

76 undergraduates participated in the experiment. They were told, that the goal of the experiment was to test taste perception. But his was not true, the real goal was to test will power.

Cookies vs radish eater

Each of the participants was put in a room with a plate of food. Half of the plate was filled with warm, fresh cookies and the other half was filled with radish, the bitter vegetable.

Then the scientist told half of the participants, that they are only allowed to eat the cookies and the other half was only allowed to eat the radish. Then the scientist left the room and the participant was on his own.

Of course, the cookie eater were in heaven and the enjoyed the fresh and sweet cookies.

The participants assigned to the radish were craving for the cookies, but they had to stick to the bitter vegetables. It took them a lot of discipline to resist the warm cookies. Ignoring radish is easy, but ignoring the cookies requires a lot of discipline.

The unsolvable puzzle

After a few minutes the scientist came back to the room, removed the plate and told the participant that they need to wait for few minutes. The participant got a puzzle, which they should solve while they were waiting.

The scientist told the participant, that they could ring the bell, if the need something. Then the scientist left the room.

Actually, the puzzle was the most important part of the experiment. It was not solvable. When you try to solve it you will always fail and it requires a lot of discipline to try it again and again and again.

The cookie eater were very relaxed. They tried to solve the puzzle over and over again. They still had a lot of will power left. Some of the cookie eater spend more than half an hour before they rang the bell.

The radish eater on the other hand, were very frustrated and they rang the bell much earlier. Some of them were angry and told the scientist, that this is a stupid experiment.

After all, the cookie eater rang the bell after 19 minutes on average, while the radish eater rang the bell only after 8 minutes. The cookie eater spent more than the double amount of time to solve the unsolvable puzzle.

This means the radish eater had already consumed a lot of their will power when they were resisting the cookies.

Will power can be trained

There are a number of conducted experiments showing that will power can be trained. If you want to know more, than read the book, which I already mentioned above: “The power of habit” by Charles Duhigg.

You can train your will power, like you can do with your muscles. Training every day makes your muscles stronger and you are able to lift more weights.

It is the same with will power, training it increases the strength and the maximum of your daily will power increases.

Don’t rely on will power

I thought that successful people have a lot of will power, or discipline. Otherwise how would they be able to achieve all those things?

To my surprise it is not will power, that drives successful people. Will power is important, but the key here is to build habits.

Building a habit requires discipline, but when you have built one, then executing it requires almost no discipline at all.

For example, when you were a kid, then your parents probably always had to remind you to brush your teeth, before you go to bed. It required a lot of discipline by your parents to push you and build this habit for you.

Nowadays you probably don’t even think about that you have to brush your teeth before you go to bed. It just happens automatically and doesn’t require a lot of discipline. The habit has been build, executing it is easy.

Anyway, the whole topic about habits is a very big and interesting one. Therefore I will dedicate one of the upcoming blog posts to that topic.

Ok, that’s it for this week

The next time you come home from work with the plan to go running, but you don’t have any motivation at all, then remember that will power and discipline can be trained like a muscle 🙂

Stay tuned and have a great week. HabbediEhre!

Nexus – the scaling Scrum framework

Nexus is a framework, which builds on top of the scrum framework and is designed for scaling. It focuses on solving cross-team dependencies and integration issues.

What is Nexus?

The Nexus framework has been created by Ken Schwaber, co-creator of the Scrum framework.

Similar to the scrum guide, there is also the Nexus guide, which contains the body of knowledge for the framework.

It has been released by scrum.org in August 2015.

You can find the definition of Nexus in the Nexus guide as follows:

Nexus is a framework consisting of roles, events, artifacts, and techniques that bind and weave together the work of approximately three to nine Scrum Teams working on a single Product Backlog to build an Integrated Increment that meets a goal.

The Nexus framework is a foundation to plan, launch, scale and manage large product and software development initiatives.

It is for organizations to use when multiple Scrum Teams are working on one product as it allows the teams to unify as one larger unit, a Nexus.

Scrum vs Nexus

Nexus is an exoskeleton that rests on top of multiple Scrum Teams when they are combined to create an Integrated Increment.

Nexus is consistent with Scrum and its parts will be familiar to those who have worked on Scrum projects.

The difference is that more attention is paid to dependencies and interoperation between Scrum Teams.

It delivers one “Done” Integrated Increment at least every Sprint.

New Role “Nexus integration team”

The guide defines a new role, the nexus integration team.

It is a Scrum team, which takes ownership of any integration issues.

The Nexus integration team is accountable for an integrated increment that is produced at least every Sprint.

If necessary, members of the nexus integration team may also work on other Scrum Teams in that Nexus, but priority must be given to the work for the Nexus integration team.

Event “Refinement”

In Nexus the refinement meeting is formalized as a separate scrum event.

In the cross-team refinement event Product Backlog items are decomposed into enough detail in order to understand which teams might deliver them.

After that dependencies are identified and visualized across teams and Sprints.

The Scrum teams use this information to order their work to minimize cross-team dependencies.

Event “Nexus Sprint Planning”

The purpose of nexus Sprint Planning is to coordinate the activities of all Scrum Teams in a Nexus for a single Sprint.

Appropriate representatives from each Scrum team participate and make adjustments to the ordering of the work as created during Refinement events.

Then a Nexus Sprint Goal is defined, an objective that all Scrum Teams in the Nexus work on to achieve during the Sprint.

After that the representatives join their individual Scrum teams to do their individual team Sprint Planning.

Event “Nexus Daily Scrum”

The Nexus Daily Scrum is an event for appropriate representatives from individal Scrum Teams to inspect the current state of the Integrated increment.

During the Nexus Daily Scrum the Nexus Sprint Backlog should be used to visualize and manage current dependencies.

The work identified during that event is then taken back to individual Teams for planning inside their Daily Scrum events.

Wrap up

This is a very highlevel overview about Nexus, you can find more information in the Nexus guide or in this nice introduction.

I am practicing Scrum for quite a while now, but I have never heard about Nexus before. Only last week I stumpled upon it on the Internet.

Therefore I also don’t know anybody who is actively using the Nexus framework in their daily work.

But from this point of view it looks like Ken Schwaber did a very good job again when defining this framework.

I hope that I will have the chance some time to work with Nexus in real life. Of course, for that you need to have the environment where it would make sense to give the Nexus framework a try.

Ok, that’s it for this week. Have a good day and HabbediEhre!

Scrum values – new section in scrum guide

The scrum guide, the official description of the scrum working methodology, has been recently extended with a new section: the scrum values.

Before we dive deeper in what the scrum values are about and what they mean, I want to give you a quick overview on the history of scrum, and especially about the history of the scrum guide.

Then it should be easier to understand the big picture, when and why the scrum guide has been created and updated over the years.

History of scrum

Scrum is now about 21 years old.

Jeff Sutherland and Ken Schwaber, the fathers of scrum, presented their paper “SCRUM Software Development Process” the first time in 1995 at the Oopsla conference in Austin, Texas.

But the name scrum was not their invention. They inherited the name from the paper The New New Product Development Game published by Takeuchi and Nonaka a few years earlier.

Scrum is used to solve complex problems. It uses an empirical approach and solves problems based on experience and facts.

Until today scrum has been adopted by a vast amount of software development companies around the world. But scrum has also been successfully applied in other domains, for instance manufacturing, marketing, operations and education.

History of scrum guide

Jeff and Ken published the first version of the scrum guide in 2010, which is 15! years after their first presentation of scrum at the conference. I don’t know why it took them so long nor what has been used by the community before that.

Jeff and Ken made some incremental updates to the scrum guide in 2011 and 2013. Together they established the globally recognized body of knowledge of scrum, as we know it today.

Recently, in July 2016, a new section has been added to the scrum guide: the scrum values.

The scrum values

Successful use of Scrum depends on people becoming more proficient in living following five values: commitment, courage, focus, openness, respect.

Let’s have a look at each of those values including the one sentence of description from the scrum guide.

Commitment

People personally commit to achieving the goals of the Scrum Team.

I am personally very happy that this value has been added to the scrum guide and is now officially recognized as an important value for a scrum team.

It is a challenge to get the team to commit to the goal of a sprint, but it is a cruicial part in making the team successful.

Courage

The Scrum Team members have courage to do the right thing and work on tough problems.

People should stand up for their beliefs and for what they think is important to put the team to the next level.

People in a scrum team should not be afraid of though problems. They face even the thoughest problems and try to solve them together.

Focus

Everyone focuses on the work of the Sprint and the goals of the Scrum Team.

People are not picking up work outside of the committed sprint. They focus on the work, which has been agreed upon in the sprint planning.

Everybody works on what is good for the team, not what is good for themselves. The goals of the team have a higher priority than the personal goals.

Openness

The Scrum Team and its stakeholders agree to be open about all the work and the challenges with performing the work.

There is no hiding of facts or not telling the whole truth about what is going on. There are no political games played.

Everybody is honest about the problems they face and for instance explains why things are delayed to give the stakeholder insights of what is happening within the team.

Openness in the team as well as openness to the stakeholders builds trust and a better working environment.

Respect

Scrum Team members respect each other to be capable, independent people.

Respect is one of the key elements of building a good culture within the team and in the whole organization.

Treat people as you want to be treated!

Why has the scrum guide been extended?

How were those changes in the scrum guide implemented?

Ken and Jeff built a community around the scrum guide and they are running an online platform, called users voice, where people can make suggestions for changes in the scrum guide.

Other people can vote for those suggestions, but the final decision for making changes in the scrum guide is still taken by Ken and Jeff.

Wrap up

Today scrum is recognized as the most applied framework for agile software development.

The scrum guide plays a very big role in the success of scrum, because it is the first reference point for people wanting to learn more about it.

The newly added section containing the scrum values are a very welcome idea to improve the scrum framework even further.

I will definitely present those scrum values to my team to make them think about this topic and get a discussion rolling. Let me know, if you did the same and share your experience in a comment.

That’s it for this week. Stay tuned and HabbediEhre!